With sculptures less able to reflect the new trends of 19th century modern art, artists like Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) can pursue a monumentalism that stems mainly from the ideology of the Renaissance, and others, Victorian values ​​of patriotic and religious values ​​to celebrate historical figures which, even in the previous era, were exemplary, were only formed with the emergence of modern twentieth-century sculptors, such as Constantine Brancusi (1876-1957), Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916) and Naum Gabo (Naum Nehemia Pevsner) (1890-1977) began to change this sculpture at the turn of the century. Note in particular the impact of African sculpture on the modern sculptors of the Paris School.


During the Paleolithic, many sculptures were made of stone, clay and bone. The sculptors could not go to the art shop and buy a chisel, the rocks were used as a sculpture tool. With controlled movements, the artist struck the sculpture with sharp or coarse stones to remove the stone and sculpt the sculpture.

The mass refers to the volume of the sculpture, the solid fragment contained in their surfaces.

Space is the air surrounding solid sculptures and reacts with them in different ways: first, it defines the edges of the sculpture; Secondly, it can be surrounded by a part of the empty sculpture and form or areas of the void; Third, it can connect some parts of the sculpture, which are then connected through space.